Text of the Cold War Test Review
What international organization was formed after WWII to try & solve problems that might lead to WWIII?
What economic plan was supposed to keep Western European Nations free from Communism after WWII? How did the USSR feel about this?
Marshall Plan; Soviets saw this as a major threat
Which side did the U.S. (and the U.N.) support in the Korean War? Who supported the other side?
the South, the USSR (and China) supported the North
Why did Truman fire MacArthur during the Korean War?
MacArthur insisted on being more aggressive (wanted to nuke China)
What was the result of the Korean War?
NK stays Communist, SK free & democratic, DMZ in middle (on 38th parallel)
What were the two main treaty organizations of the Cold War?
NATO (U.S. led) & Warsaw Pact (USSR led)
What was Truman accused of being “soft” on? How did he respond to this?
Communism, policy review boards to identify Communists in Government
What doctrine vowed to support all resistors of communism wherever they may be in order to stop the spread of communism?
How did we respond to the Soviets cutting off access to W. Berlin in 1948?
Berlin Airlift of supplies
What did the Soviets test/demonstrate in 1949 that scared the heck out of us?
an atomic bomb
Who was put to death for supposedly giving our nuclear secrets to the Soviets?
Julius & Ethel Rosenberg
What was the name of the congressional committee charged with rooting out suspected communists? Who were their most famous targets?
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC); Hollywood writers & actors
Which U.S. Senator made a name for himself in the early 1950’s by hunting communists? What was his fate?
Joseph McCarthy, brought down by his former allies (censured in the Senate)
Name 2 ways U.S. citizens responded to the threat of Nuclear attack?
fallout shelters, drop and cover drills, end of the world parties
What made it possible for the U.S. to avoid a major post-war economic slump?
Marshall Plan, GI Bill, and people spent what they had saved during the war
What form of popular music emerged in the 1950’s? Who were some key artists?
Rock and Roll, Elvis, Chuck Berry, Buddy Holly, Richie Valens
How did Rock and Roll challenge mainstream values?
black roots, sexual overtones, fostered rebellion
What was the societal expectation for American women in the 1950’s?
Stay home, raise the kids, and consume
What was the result of the need for new housing and desire for a middle class lifestyle in the post war era? How did this change our transportation needs?
The suburbs, more cars and more roads
Name two factors that helped place emphasis on conformity in 1950’s America.
TV, the suburbs, corporate culture, fear of communism, consumerism
How did the GI Bill impact the U.S.?
Made it possible for vets to buy homes, businesses & farms, as well as go to college (which pushed millions into the Middle Class)
Who did both parties covet as their candidate for President in 1952? Why?
Dwight D. Eisenhower, because he was a politically moderate war hero
Which party did Eisenhower choose? What young senator became his running mate?
Republican, Richard Nixon
Name 2 places the CIA intervened on behalf of U.S. interests in the 1950’s.
Iran (overthrow Mossedeqh, Guatemala, Lebanon
How did the Suez Crisis of 1956 effect the Cold War?
opened the Middle East to Soviet influence
What did the U.S. response to the European crises of 1956 demonstrate?
We were unwilling to intervene behind the Iron Curtain
What event of 1957 caused a rush to improve math & science programs in the U.S.?
launch of Sputnik
At the peak of the arms race, how many times over could the U.S. & the USSR have blown up the world?
What is the name for the idea that you can prevent war by having so many nuclear weapons your rival knows they will be destroyed if they attack you?
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
What was the U-2 incident? How did it affect relations between the superpowers?
Soviets shot down a U.S. spy plane in 1960, it started a period of tense relations
What was the bracero program?
recruited Mexican immigrants across the border to work on the farms during World War II
What government operation focused on deporting many of these immigrants during the 1950’s?
What new form of retail center emerged in the 1950’s?
the suburban shopping mall
What were the two main provisions of the Taft Hartley Act? Was it good or bad for unions?
President could declare an 80 day “cooling off” period in labor negotiations, communists & socialists were removed from union leadership, bad for unions
What did Truman fear about unions’ demands for higher wages?
they were inflationary and would be harmful to the economy
What was primary the purpose of Truman’s Fair Deal?
continue the programs of FDR’s New Deal and extend opportunity for socioeconomic advancement to more Americans
Identify two key aspects of Eisenhower’s “modern republicanism”?
limit the role of the federal government, reduce role of the President while increasing power of Congress and the Courts, balance budget, support corporations
What communist dictator rose to power in Cuba in the late 1950’s? What did he do that angered Americans?
Fidel Castro, seized American properties and favored the Soviets
What effort did Kennedy make to remove him from power?
Invasion of the Bay of Pigs by roughly 2,000 Cuban exiles, U.S. hoped invasion would stir insurrection against Castro
Why did the invasion of the Bay of Pigs fail?
lack of Cuban support, no American air strike
Why did the Soviets put up the Berlin Wall in 1961?
Embarrassed by the flow of immigrants fleeing into West Berlin from East Germany
Where did the Soviets attempt to set up missiles in October of 1962? How did the U.S. respond?
Cuba, naval blockade (this is the Cuban Missile Crisis)
What was the outcome of this crisis?
U.S. promised not to invade Cuba again, USSR took back its missiles
What was the purpose and significance of the National Housing Act of 1949?
Provide all American families with a decent home, significant because the gov’t took responsibility for housing
What major demographic/social movement left led the middle class to the suburbs and massive poverty in the inner cities?
White flight (exodus of white middle class to the suburbs)
What 1953 government policy ended economic support for Native Americans and discontinued the reservation system?
The termination policy (led to worsened conditions for Native Americans)
What was JFK’s plan to move America forward called? What were two of it’s main emphases?
Establish Peace Corps, win the race to the moon, better health care for poor and elderly, work to alleviate poverty
How successful was Kennedy in getting these plans implemented? Why?
Not very; faced resistance from same groups that fought Truman’s Fair Deal – and was assassinated just 2.5 years into time in office