Text of the U.S. Star Review
Why did the Puritans want to leave England?
What religious movement was focused on getting an emotional response from its audience?
Why did the British begin taxing the colonists in 1763?
pay for the French & Indian (7 yrs.) War
Who did the southern colonies rely upon for their labor force?
slaves from Africa
Who was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence?
Which Enlightenment thinker pushed for a three branch government?
Which enlightenment thinker was an advocate for the protection of “natural rights” (life, liberty, property)? Where did they believe these rights came from?
Which Enlightenment thinker pushed government by the general will?
What famous pamphlet in 1776 called for Americans to reject monarchy & support independence? Who was its author?
Common Sense, Thomas Paine
What document set up our nation’s first government but ended up giving too much power to the states?
Articles of Confederation
Name two weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
no power to tax, no power to coin money, no executive branch, weak central government
What were the two main purposes of the Declaration of Independence?
Establish ideology behind revolution and list grievances vs. King George
How many houses are there in our Congress? What are their names?
2, the Senate and the House of Representatives
What were the two major compromises made during the drafting of the United States Constitution?
Great Compromise (large states: House, small states: Senate), 3/5 Compromise (5 slaves count for 3 men)
What part of the government did the Federalists want strengthened in the new constitution?
the national (Federal) government, get it…Federalists
What group pushed hard for the inclusion of the Bill of Rights?
What freedoms are guaranteed by the First Amendment?
Speech, religion, press, assembly, petition
What group has the power to declare laws/acts unconstitutional (aka the power of Judicial review established in Marbury v. Madison)?
Judicial Branch/Supreme Court
What was Hamilton’s (the Federalist) vision for America?
A country based on manufacturing and a strong central government
What was Jefferson’s (the Democratic Republican) vision of America?
Agricultural society, everybody owns land, strong state’s rights
What was the Monroe Doctrine (issued in 1823)?
don’t mess around in our hemisphere & we’ll stay out of yours (to Europe)
What is “Manifest Destiny”?
The belief that the U.S. would someday control the land from coast to coast.
What change in voting requirements allowed the “common man” to support Andrew Jackson and the new Democratic Party in 1828?
End to the property requirement for voting
How were the industries of westward expansion in conflict with the lifestyle of the Plains Native Americans?
settled (mining & farming) vs. nomadic
Why did Mormons move west to the Utah territory?
To escape religious persecution
What was Lincoln’s main purpose at the start of the fighting in the Civil War?
preserving the Union
What happened to the Southern industrial and agricultural production facilities during the war?
They were almost totally wiped out
What was the purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation?
Free the slaves in rebel states
In what speech does Lincoln call for a “new birth of freedom” and identify the new goals of the war?
What did the Civil War Amendments (13, 14, 15) do?
Made slavery illegal (13), extends civil rights to all races (14), voting rights for all males (15)
Name 2 things that kept freedmen from gaining true equality.
sharecropping, KKK, black codes, racist attitudes, poverty
Name 2 ways Southern states kept freedmen from voting.
poll taxes, literacy tests, threats & violence
What was the major demographic shift after the Civil War?
urbanization (shift from country to city)
What inventions helped fuel the growth of cities?
telephone, electric light, use of steel in construction, electric street car
Give 3 examples of poor working and living conditions in the new industrial cities.
heat/cold, unsafe machines, long hours, low wages, overcrowding, crime and disease
Describe 2 ways that districts or neighborhoods developed in these new cities.
by industry, wealth, racial or ethnic group
What religious movement of the late 1800’s created a desire by Christians to save their souls by reforming society and by helping the less fortunate?
The Second Great Awakening
What was the goal of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1846?
Women’s rights including suffrage (the right to vote)
What famous book (and author) exposed the horrors of these conditions, especially in Chicago’s meat packing industry?
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
How did workers eventually respond to poor conditions?
What was the first national labor organization? Whom did they try and organize?
Knights of Labor, all workers
What type of worker did the American Federation of Labor (AFL) try to organize? Who was their first leader?
skilled white male workers, Samuel Gompers
What is laissez faire economics?
a system with little or no government control or interference with business/trade
Why were new immigrants subjected to so much discrimination?
different languages, religions (Roman Catholic, Jewish), complexions, cultural differences
How did the Americanization Movement attempt to help immigrants succeed?
education in the “American” way of life, including public schools, Protestant religion, hygiene, English language
What did political machines offer to immigrants in order to get their votes?
help with housing, finding a job, services etc.
Identify two problems political machines caused for their constituents.
corruption, voting fraud, bribery, graft
What do you call a group of corporations controlled by the same board for common interest?
What type of government economic policy did business leaders want?
What theory favored by William Graham Sumner used ideas about evolution to explain differences between the rich and the poor?
What theory used biblical ideas to justify gaining wealth (as long as it was shared to help society)?
The Social Gospel
What development in transportation linked trade between cities after the Civil War?
What kind of person was likely to be a populist? Where were they likely to live?
Name 2 demands of the populists.
silver-backed currency, higher crop prices, a nat’l bank to give fair loans, regulation of the RRs
What was the goal of the muckrakers?
draw attention to social problems with sensational journalism
What optimistic group had great faith in the ongoing progress of society?
Name a law that progressives passed to help purify food.
Pure Food & Drug Act, Meat Inspection Act
Name a measure taken by progressives to take the corruption out of gov’t.
commission system, direct primaries, referendums & initiatives
What did Progressives do to try to help children?
Created the Children’s Bureau, improved schools and regulated child labor.
What did Progressives do by passing the 16th Amendment?
Created the income tax
What two progressive causes were most important to President Theodore Roosevelt?
Regulating monopolies (“trustbusting”) and conserving the environment.
What law did he use to bust the trusts?
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
What California politician helped to found the Progressive Party, to create an 8 hour workday and to regulate railroads?
Governor Hiram Johnson
What organization was formed by WEB DuBois in the early 1900’s to try and improve conditions for African-Americans?
What was the result of the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920?
Women got the right to vote
What did the Open Door Policy give us free reign to do?
force China to trade with us
What new type of newspaper reporting stressed sensationalism and led William Randolph Hearst to call for American intervention in Cuba?
Identify 2 places where the United States annexed territory or otherwise assumed control in the Pacific at the turn of the century.
The Philippines, Hawaii, Guam
Name two reasons why the U.S. was interested in expanding it’s imperial power.
ports for naval ships, markets for manufactured goods, expansion of Christianity, sources of raw materials
What did the United States do to support the Panamanian Revolution from Colombia? Why did we want an independent Panama?
Roosevelt sent warships; we wanted to build the Panama Canal
What was the point of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine?
We will intervene when necessary in the Western Hemisphere (in a “policing” role)
What “manufactured” event drew the U.S. into the Spanish American War?
the sinking of the USS Maine
Roosevelt’s Latin American foreign policy was based on…? While Taft’s was based on…?
Roosevelt (Big Stick) military intervention; Taft (Dollar Diplomacy) United States investment
Why was there a surplus in farm products during the 1920’s?
overproduction from WWI
What was the purpose of the Selective Service Act?
help draft troops for the AEF
What organization was responsible for producing U.S. propaganda during WWI?
Committee on Public Information (CPI)
Name the two events that helped pull the U.S. into the war.
Lusitania & Zimmerman Telegram
What was Wilson’s stated reason for entering WWI?
“Make the world safe for democracy.”
What two laws passed during World War I curtailed civil rights and sought to punish enemy spies?
Sedition Act (prevented speaking out against the war) & the Espionage Act (spy and die!)
Name 2 kinds of people who might have opposed U.S. involvement in WWI.
pacifists, socialists, German immigrants, Irish immigrants
What was Wilson’s Plan for Peace called? What was the most critical component of this plan?
14 Points, the League of Nations
What was the major population shift from rural areas, especially the South, to urban areas involved in wartime production?
Great Migration (many African Americans moved North)
Name two key conditions of the Treaty of Versailles at the end of World War I.
Germany responsible for WWI, pay big reparations, League of Nations
Why did many Americans reject Woodrow Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy” at the end of World War I?
High cost of war in exchange for very little benefit from United States involvement
What policies offered by Republican presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover appealed to many Americans during the 1920’s?
pro business, isolationist foreign policy, “return to normalcy”
What kind of revolution took place in Russia in 1917-1919? What kind of “scare” did this cause in the United States?
Bolshevik (communist) revolution, “Red Scare”
What was the purpose of the Palmer Raids?
root out and deport/imprison suspected Communists (especially immigrants with connections to socialism/anarchism)
What organization was formed in response to the Palmer Raids?
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
Who took over after Harding to clean up after the scandals? Describe his business philosophy.
Coolidge, hands off, pro-ownership
Identify two examples of anti-immigrant sentiment from the twenties,
Sacco & Vanzetti, Al Smith, KKK, immigration quotas & restrictions
How did the 18th Amendment and the Volstead Act attempt to change American society?
Tried to improve American moral values by banning the sale and production of alcohol
How successful was prohibition? Who took over distribution of alcohol during prohibition?
not very; organized crime
Identify three characteristics of urban America in the 1920’s.
cultural diversity, new immigrants, religious diversity, speakeasies & jazz, manufacturing
Name two ways women established new independent attitudes in the 20s.
Bobbing Hair, wearing shorter skirts, moving out on their own, working
What is “buying on margin”?
taking a loan on profits to buy more stock
Why is this a problem?
market crashes and nobody can pay back their loans
What group worked to oppress everybody who was not a White Protestant? Why did it have a resurgence in the 1920’s?
KKK, increased ethnic tension in the cities (Great Migration & Red Scare)
How did Marcus Garvey and his followers respond to increased hostility toward African Americans?
“Back to Africa Movement”
How did Al Smith’s religion help to prevent him from winning the 1928 Presidential election?
There was widespread prejudice in the United States against Catholics
List two new electronic conveniences of the ‘20s. How did these change people’s lives?
vacuum cleaner, washing machine, radio, refrigerator, toaster; more free time, greater mass media
How did the automobile change American life?
demand for roads, faster transportation, closed distances, greater contact
What new forms of media started the worldwide spread of American pop culture in the 1920’s?
Radio and the Movies
Name two types of jobs commonly held by middle class women.
nursing, teaching, higher level clerical
Name two types of jobs commonly held by lower class women.
factory, lower clerical, janitorial
What was the Harlem Renaissance?
the flourishing growth of the arts in Harlem’s African American community during the 1920’s
What were some of the key themes explored by Harlem Renaissance writers such as Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston
challenging racism, problems of poverty and oppression, celebrating Black culture
What encouraged consumption of all kinds of new goods in the twenties?
new marketing techniques and easier credit/installment plans
What new Government Banking agency (established in 1913) was blamed in part for starting the Great Depression? What mistake did they make?
the Federal Reserve Board (the Fed), raised interest rates
What single event in October, 1929 is often thought of as the start of the Depression?
stock market crash (loses ½ its value) due to over-inflated prices
What were the two sources of bad debts that caused so many banks to fail at the start of the Depression?
Loans to farmers and investments in the Stock Market
What President was blamed for the start of the Depression? What was his approach to solving the Depression
Herbert Hoover, Staying hands off, “rugged individualism”, voluntary action
Why was Hoover opposed to direct relief?
He thought it would create a large gov’t, hurt America’s pride, and make people dependent
What were Hoover’s two attempts at direct gov’t action? What did they try to do?
Federal Farm Board (loans and cooperatives) and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (loans to banks and businesses)
What did Congress do to try and protect American industry? What was the result?
passed the Hawley Smoot Tariff, cut international trade and slowed economic growth
What was the Dust Bowl?
destruction of millions of acres of farmland in OK & TX because of drought and wind and unwise agricultural practices
What photographer is famous for capturing the face of the Depression, especially the Dust Bowl and the Okie flight to CA?
What was the Bonus Army? How did the gov’t deal with them?
WWI vets who wanted their bonus early, dispersed by force (US Army troops)
At what percentage did unemployment peak during the Great Depression?
How much did GNP fall during the Great Depression?
Who defeated Hoover in the election of 1932? What was his plan to solve the Great Depression called?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the New Deal
What were his three areas of focus in this plan?
relief, recovery, and reform
How did conservatives view the New Deal?
1st step towards socialism (too much gov’t involvement), too many “Robin Hood” taxes on the wealthy
What was the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) responsible for?
Regulating crop prices & productions with subsidies & by paying people not to farm
What was the most controversial part of the New Deal? What did it ask people to do?
NRA (nat’l recovery administration), comply with voluntary min. wage & other regulations
What organization brought electricity to rural areas? What technology did they use to generate electricity?
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), hydroelectric (they built dams)
Who employed young men to work at road construction at forest preservation?
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
What did FDR try to do when the Supreme Court rejected parts of the New Deal like the NRA and the AAA?
Pack the court (add six justices who agreed with his ideas)
Who was the charismatic senator from Louisiana that promised to “Share Our Wealth”? What happens to him?
Huey Long, shot by a political rival
Who was Father Coughlin? Who did he blame the Depression on?
RC priest in Detroit, Jewish bankers and capitalists
What group did you join to be a part of the radical response to the Great Depression?
How did FDR respond to pressure from these critics and groups like the Communist Party?
The Second New Deal
What were the two biggest parts of the “2nd New Deal”?
Social Security and the Works Progress Administration (WPA)
What does Social Security provide?
Benefits for the elderly and disabled
What types of jobs did the WPA provide?
traditional public works jobs, plus additional jobs in “arts and letters” (writers, actors, artists, historians, etc.)
What organization was created by the Wagner Act to help protect the rights of workers and unions?
the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
What national labor organization rose to prominence in the Depression by organizing all types of workers?
the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
What major event eventually pulled our country out of the Depression?
World War II
What law(s) allowed us to provide supplies for Great Britain while remaining neutral?
Lend-Lease Act, Cash and Carry
What was significant about the Atlantic Charter?
established common war goals for United States & Great Britain (before we were actually in the war)
What was the main way that the United States might have done more to have helped the Jews of Europe?
By relaxing immigration quotas to allow escape
What key resources did the United States stop selling to Japan in the months preceding the attack on Pearl Harbor?
oil, steel, scrap metal, gasoline
Name one piece of evidence that suggests the government knew the Japanese were going to attack Pearl Harbor.
Tension with Japan, no carriers in port
What were 3 of the 4 freedoms Roosevelt built his “Four Freedoms” foreign policy on?
freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship, freedom from fear, freedom from want
How did the federal government raise money for the war effort?
Selling war bonds
How did our army handle soldiers of different races?
placed them in segregated regiments
What wartime production policy did A. Phillip Randolph convince FDR to change in order to bring greater equality to the workplace?
FDR banned racial discrimination in the defense industries
What famous group of African American pilots showed their abilities in action?
How did the United States army use Native American soldiers for secure communications in the Pacific?
Navajo wind talkers
What famous propaganda character represented American women working in wartime factories? Name one problem these women faced.
Rosie the Riveter; wage gap, fired for flirting, sexual harassment, little day care
Why did the United States government decide to inter the Nisei? How did many young Nisei men show their loyalty to the US?
the Nisei were considered a national security threat, they joined the 442nd Regiment and fought with valor in Europe
What Supreme Court decision declared that this internment was Constitutional?
Korematsu v. the United States
What event brought us into the war?
Bombing of Pearl Harbor
What two kinds of fighting were most common in the Pacific?
naval air battles & amphibious assaults (island hopping)
What battle was considered the turning point in the Pacific? Why was it significant?
Midway, United States planes and ships destroyed 4 Japanese carriers and put Japan on the defensive
Where was the greatest amount of kamikaze activity? Why?
Okinawa, it was so close to the Japanese mainland
How did the fighting at Iwo Jima help convince the United States to use the Atomic Bomb?
high casualty rate and “fight to the death” mentality of the Japanese soldiers
Where did we start fighting the war in Europe? (hint: it’s not actually Europe)
What 1944 invasion marked the beginning of the end for the Germans in Europe? Where did it take place?
D-Day/Operation Overlord, the Normandy Coast of France
Name a hazard faced by U.S. troops after they invaded Normandy and were headed into Germany.
land mines, hedgerows, sniper fire
What was the last major German counter attack?
Battle of the Bulge
What World War I technology saw the greatest improvements in WWII and gave the US its most important strategic advantage?
Name two goods that were rationed during WWII.
rubber, gasoline, sugar, flour
Where did the Big 3 meet to discuss post war plans early in 1945? (hint: the Soviets were promised a special role in Eastern Europe during this meeting)
Name two things the U.S. wanted from the Soviets at Yalta.
in the U.N., out of Eastern Europe, help vs, Japan
Which president made the decision to drop the Atomic bomb on Japan? What was his alternative to dropping the Bomb?
Truman, massive land invasion
Name one thing that was controversial about the use of the A-Bomb.
used on civilians, radiation, start arms race, technology hidden from Soviets
How did WWII solve the problems of the Great Depression?
boosted production & wages, created full employment
What international organization was formed after WWII to try & solve problems that might lead to WWIII?
Name two new organizations that were created after the war to help extend economic aid to developing countries.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF), The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Bank
Why did President Truman veto the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947? What happened to the Act?
It cut back on the power and protection of unions .. Congress overrode his veto and it became law.
What doctrine vowed to support all resistors of communism wherever they may be?
In what aspect of American society did President Truman promise to end segregation in 1948?
the United States Military
What economic plan was supposed to keep Western European Nations free form Comm. after WWII?
Which side did the U.S. support in the Korean War? Who supported the other side?
the South, the USSR
Why did Truman fire MacArthur during the Korean War?
insisted on being more aggressive (nuke China)
What was the result of the Korean War?
NK stays Comm., SK free, DMZ in middle
How did we respond to the Soviets cutting off access to W. Berlin in 1948?
Berlin Airlift of supplies
What did the Soviets test/demonstrate in 1949? What key country had a communist revolution that same year?
an atomic bomb; China
Who was put to death for supposedly giving our nuclear secrets to the Soviets?
Julius & Ethel Rosenberg
Which U.S. Senator made a name for himself in the early 1950’s by hunting communists?
Which party did Eisenhower choose? What young senator became his running mate?
Republican, Richard Nixon
How did the Suez Crisis of 1956 effect the Cold War?
opened the Middle East to Soviet influence
What event of 1957 caused a rush to improve math & science programs in the U.S.?
launch of Sputnik
What were the two main treaty organizations of the Cold War? What anti-communist treaty organization did the USA help to form in Asia?
NATO & Warsaw Pact;
What communist dictator rose to power in Cuba in the late 1950’s?
What effort did Kennedy make to remove Castro from power? Why did it fail?
the Bay of Pigs, lack of local support, no air strike
What is the name for the doctrine that says your enemy won’t attack you if he knows you can retaliate?
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
What 1962 Soviet threat in the Caribbean led to some of the darkest moments of the Cold War? What was the outcome of this crisis?
Cuban Missile Crisis, U.S. promised not to invade Cuba again, USSR took back its missiles
What 1896 Supreme Court decision made segregation legal (separate but equal)?
Plessy v. Ferguson
What 1954 Supreme Court decision reversed Plessy? What was the result?
Brown vs. the Board of Ed. (Topeka, KS), desegregation of the schools
Where did Rosa Parks start the Bus Boycott? Who was chosen to lead the boycott?
Montgomery, Martin Luther King Jr.
What was the key principle of Martin Luther King’s strategy to end segregation?
non-violent passive resistance
Give an example of a Black Separatist Organization.
Black Panthers, Nation of Islam
What organization fought school segregation in the courts? Who served as its lead attorney in the Brown Case (& later first black SC Justice)?
NAACP, Thurgood Marshall
Give 2 examples of tough conditions faced by black students at Central High in Little Rock in 1957.
soldier escorts, name calling, fights, threats
Who organized the Freedom Rides? What was their goal?
James Farmer and CORE, take the movement to the deep South via bus lines
What did the SCLC do to expose Bull Connor? What happened to MLK there?
Marches in Birmingham, he was put in jail
What was MLK’s chief purpose in his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”?
He felt that Blacks had waited too long for rights and that bold (but non-violent) action was needed.
What was the purpose of the March on Washington? What famous speech did MLK deliver there?
pressure for Civil Rights Legislation, “I Have a Dream Speech”
What legislation came out of this pressure?
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965
What roadblock to voting did the 24th Amendment eliminate?
the Poll Tax
What organization did Malcolm X represent (at first)? What did he say blacks should reject?
Nation of Islam; self hatred imposed on them by white culture
Where was militancy more rampant in the Civil Rights movement?
Who would “patrol the police” to assure they were not mistreating blacks? Name two of their demands.
Black Panthers; Jobs, self determination, Blacks should not serve in Vietnam, decent housing, better education
What was AIM? What were two of their demands?
American Indian Movement; treaties upheld, original land back, better education, equal rights
What was NOW? What were two issues they focused on?
National Organization for Women; equal pay, equal rights, sexual discrimination in the work place
What book by Betty Freidan helped inspire the start of a second Women’s movement?
the Feminine Mystique
Who did the Vietnamese originally fight for their independence after WWII? Who led the communist Vietminh in this fight?
France; Ho Chi Minh
What gave LBJ the power to “use any means necessary” to fight in Vietnam?
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
List two ways combat conditions in Vietnam were unlike those soldiers had prepared for.
jungle, traps & guerrilla tactics, heat & rain, unknown enemy,
Name one factor that made our involvement in Vietnam so controversial.
just cause?, high cost ($ & lives), impatience with lack of progress, lack of support
What was Nixon’s plan of “vietnamization”?
turning the fighting over to the South Vietnamese
What were the southern sympathizers of the communist North called?
What event in 1968 gave the American military a bad reputation for killing civilians?
My Lai Massacre
What impact did the Tet Offensive have on public opinion about the war?
turned many against it
Name two ways you could avoid the draft during the Vietnam War.
college, family, self inflicted wound, act crazy
What minority groups were over-represented in the troops in Vietnam?
Blacks and Hispanics
Why did the U.S. attack Cambodia and Laos?
there were bases for the VC and NVA
What documents exposed the truth about early U.S. action in Vietnam?
What theory proposed that if South Vietnam fell to Communism, the rest of SE Asia would soon follow?
What were the poor conditions that Latino farm workers faced in the 1960s?
low pay, poor working and living conditions, no job security
What organization was most critical in addressing these concerns? Who was its leader?
UFW, Cesar Chavez
What were the poor conditions that Native Americans faced in the 1960’s?
poverty, lack of educational opportunity, loss of tradition
Why did Carter boycott the Moscow Olympics in 1980?
USSR invasion of Afghanistan
Name two reasons Nixon went to China in 1972?
keep them at odds with USSR, open markets to trade
What did the SALT talks do?
limit strategic weapons, like ICBMs
Who replaced Spiro T. Agnew as Nixon’s VP and later pardoned Nixon for any Watergate crimes?
Why did OPEC place an embargo on oil to the U.S. in 1973?
we helped Israel in October war
Name two factors that led to the Rust Belt.
overconfidence, lost touch, energy crisis, foreign competition, slacking off
What is stagflation a combination of?
unemployment & inflation
Who had to deal with it during his presidency?
What was Carter’s major foreign policy victory in the Middle East?
Camp David Accords
What was Carter’s big foreign policy nightmare?
Iran Hostage Crisis
What major events had damaged Americans self esteem between 1969-1981?
Vietnam, Watergate, Iran Hostage Crisis
What president tried to restore prestige to the presidency in light of this?
What was Reagan’s plan to fix the economy by cutting taxes and government spending?
Supply Side economics
What scandal was the biggest embarressment during Reagan’s prsidency?
The Iran/Contra Scandal
What Soviet leaders reforms ultimately led to the collapse of the Eastern Bloc.
Identify two challenges George H.W. Bush faced during his presidency in the 1990’s.
recession, end of Cold War, Gulf War, S & L Crisis, War on Drugs, Clarence Thomas