Text of the M25 Final Review
Krister Swanson - Moorpark College

Why were new immigrants subjected to so much discrimination?
different languages, religions (Roman Catholic, Jewish), complexions, cultural differences
What do you call a group of corporations controlled by the same board for common interest?
What theory used biblical ideas to justify gaining wealth (as long as it was shared to help society)?
The Social Gospel
Name 2 demands of the populists.
silver-backed currency, higher crop prices, a nat’l bank to give fair loans, regulation of the RRs
What optimistic group had great faith in the ongoing progress of society?
the progressives
What two progressive causes were most important to President Theodore Roosevelt?
Regulating monopolies (“trustbusting”) and conserving the environment.
What organization was formed by WEB DuBois in the early 1900’s to try and improve conditions for African-Americans?
What was the result of the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920?
Women got the right to vote
What did the Open Door Policy give us free reign to do?
force China to trade with us
Identify 2 places where the United States annexed territory or otherwise assumed control in the Pacific at the turn of the century.
The Philippines, Hawaii, Guam
Name two reasons why the U.S. was interested in expanding it’s imperial power.
ports for naval ships, markets for manufactured goods, expansion of Christianity, sources of raw materials
What “manufactured” event drew the U.S. into the Spanish American War?
the sinking of the USS Maine
Why was there a surplus in farm products during the 1920’s?
overproduction from WWI
What was Wilson’s stated reason for entering WWI?
“Make the world safe for democracy.”
What two laws passed during World War I curtailed civil rights and sought to punish enemy spies?
Sedition Act (prevented speaking out against the war) & the Espionage Act (spy and die!)
Name 2 kinds of people who might have opposed U.S. involvement in WWI.
pacifists, socialists, German immigrants, Irish immigrants
What was Wilson’s Plan for Peace called? What was the most critical component of this plan?
14 Points, the League of Nations
What was the major population shift from rural areas, especially the South, to urban areas involved in wartime production?
Great Migration (many African Americans moved North)
Why did many Americans reject Woodrow Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy” at the end of World War I?
High cost of war in exchange for very little benefit from United States involvement
What policies offered by Republican presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover appealed to many Americans during the 1920’s?
pro business, isolationist foreign policy, “return to normalcy”
What kind of revolution took place in Russia in 1917-1919? What kind of “scare” did this cause in the United States?
Bolshevik (communist) revolution, “Red Scare”
Who took over after Harding to clean up after the scandals? Describe his business philosophy.
Coolidge, hands off, pro-ownership
Identify two examples of anti-immigrant sentiment from the twenties,
Sacco & Vanzetti, Al Smith, KKK, immigration quotas & restrictions
How did the 18th Amendment and the Volstead Act attempt to change American society?
Tried to improve American moral values by banning the sale and production of alcohol
Name two ways women established new independent attitudes in the 20s.
Bobbing Hair, wearing shorter skirts, moving out on their own
What is “buying on the margin”?
taking a loan on profits to buy more stock
What group worked to oppress everybody who was not a White Protestant? Why did it have a resurgence in the 1920’s?
KKK, increased ethnic tension in the cities (Great Migration & Red Scare)
How did Al Smith’s religion help to prevent him from winning the 1928 Presidential election?
There was widespread prejudice in the United States against Catholics
What new forms of media started the worldwide spread of American pop culture in the 1920’s?
Radio and the Movies
Name two types of jobs commonly held by lower class women.
factory, lower clerical, janitorial
What was the Harlem Renaissance?
the flourishing growth of the arts in Harlem’s African American community during the 1920’s
What were some of the key themes explored by Harlem Renaissance writers such as Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston
challenging racism, problems of poverty and oppression, celebrating Black culture
What encouraged consumption of all kinds of new goods in the twenties?
new marketing techniques and easier credit/installment plans
What single event in October, 1929 is often thought of as the start of the Depression?
stock market crash  (loses ½ its value) due to over-inflated prices
What were the two sources of bad debts that caused so many banks to fail at the start of the Depression?
Loans to farmers and investments in the Stock Market
What President was blamed for the start of the Depression? What was his approach to solving the Depression
Herbert Hoover, Staying hands off, “rugged individualism”, voluntary action
What were Hoover’s two attempts at direct gov’t action? What did they try to do?
Federal Farm Board (loans and cooperatives) and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (loans to banks and businesses)
What did Congress do to try and protect American industry?  What was the result?
passed the Hawley Smoot Tariff, cut international trade and slowed economic growth
What was the Bonus Army?  How did the gov’t deal with them?
WWI vets who wanted their bonus early, dispersed by force (US Army troops)
Where did unemployment peak during the Great Depression?
How much did GNP fall during the Great Depression?
Who defeated Hoover in the election of 1932? What was his plan to solve the Great Depression called?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the New Deal
How did conservatives view the New Deal?
1st step towards socialism (too much gov’t involvement), too many “Robin Hood” taxes on the wealthy
What was the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) responsible for?
Regulating crop prices & productions with subsidies & by paying people not to farm
What organization brought electricity to rural areas?  What technology did they use to generate electricity?
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), hydroelectric (they built dams)
What did FDR try to do when the Supreme Court rejected parts of the New Deal like the NRA and the AAA?
Pack the court (add six justices who agreed with his ideas)
Who was the charismatic senator from Louisiana that promised to “Share Our Wealth”?  What happens to him?
Huey Long, shot by a political rival
What were the two biggest parts of the “2nd New Deal”?
Social Security and the Works Progress Administration (WPA)
What types of jobs did the WPA provide?
traditional public works jobs, plus additional jobs in “arts and letters” (writers, actors, artists, historians, etc.)
What organization was created by the Wagner Act to help protect the rights of workers and unions?
the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
What national labor organization rose to prominence in the Depression by organizing all types of workers?
the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
What major event eventually pulled our country out of the GD?
World War II
What was significant about the Atlantic Charter?
established common war goals for United States & Great Britain (before we were actually in the war)
What key resources did the United States stop selling to Japan in the months preceding the attack on Pearl Harbor?
oil, steel, scrap metal, gasoline
How did our army handle soldiers of different races?
placed them in segregated regiments
What famous propaganda character represented American women working in wartime factories? Name one problem these women faced.
Rosie the Riveter; wage gap, fired for flirting, sexual harassment, little day care
Why did the United States government decide to inter the Nisei?  How did many young Nisei men show their loyalty to the US?
the Nisei were considered a national security threat, they joined the 442nd Regiment and fought with valor in Europe
What event brought us into the war?
Bombing of Pearl Harbor
What two kinds of fighting were most common in the Pacific?
naval air battles & amphibious assaults (island hopping)
How did the fighting at Iwo Jima help convince the United States to use the Atomic Bomb?
high casualty rate and “fight to the death” mentality of the Japanese soldiers
What 1944 invasion marked the beginning of the end for the Germans in Europe? Where did it take place?
D-Day/Operation Overlord, the Normandy Coast of France
What was the last major German counter attack?
Battle of the Bulge
Name two goods that were rationed during WWII.
rubber, gasoline, sugar, flour
Which president made the decision to drop the Atomic bomb on Japan? What was his alternative to dropping the Bomb?
Truman, massive land invasion
Name one thing that was controversial about the use of the A-Bomb.
used on civilians, radiation, start arms race, technology hidden from Soviets
How did WWII solve the problems of the Great Depression?
boosted production & wages, created full employment
What international organization was formed after WWII to try & solve problems that might lead to WWIII?
United Nations
Why did President Truman veto  the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947? What happened to the Act?
It cut back on the power and protection of unions .. Congress overrode his veto and it became law.
What doctrine vowed to support all resistors of communism wherever they may be?
Truman Doctrine
What economic plan was supposed to keep Western European Nations free form Comm. after WWII?
Marshall Plan
Which side did the U.S. support in the Korean War?  Who supported the other side?
the South, the USSR
Why did Truman fire MacArthur during the Korean War?
insisted on being more aggressive (nuke China)
What was the result of the Korean War?
NK stays Comm., SK free, DMZ in middle
How did we respond to the Soviets cutting off access to W. Berlin in 1948?
Berlin Airlift of supplies
What did the Soviets test/demonstrate in 1949? What key country had a communist revolution that same year?
an atomic bomb; China
Which U.S. Senator made a name for himself in the early 1950’s by hunting communists?
Joseph McCarthy
What effort did Kennedy make to remove Castro from power? Why did it fail?
the Bay of Pigs, lack of local support, no air strike
What is the name for the doctrine that says your enemy won’t attack you if he knows you can retaliate?
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
What 1962 Soviet threat in the Caribbean led to some of the darkest moments of the Cold War? What was the outcome of this crisis?
Cuban Missile Crisis, U.S. promised not to invade Cuba again, USSR took back its missiles
What 1896 Supreme Court decision made segregation legal (separate but equal)?
Plessy v. Ferguson
What 1954 Supreme Court decision reversed Plessy?  What was the immediate result?
Brown vs. the Board of Ed. (Topeka, KS), desegregation of the schools
Where did Rosa Parks start the Bus Boycott? Who was chosen to lead the boycott?
Montgomery, Martin Luther King Jr.
What was the key principle of Martin Luther King’s strategy to end segregation?
non-violent passive resistance
Give an example of a Black Separatist Organization.
Black Panthers, Nation of Islam
What organization fought school segregation in the courts? Who served as its lead attorney in the Brown Case (& later first black SC Justice)?
NAACP, Thurgood Marshall
What did the SCLC do to expose Bull Connor?  What happened to MLK there?
Marches in Birmingham, he was put in jail
What organization did Malcolm X represent (at first)?  What did he say blacks should reject?
Nation of Islam, self hatred imposed on them by white culture
Where was militancy more rampant?
Northern cities
Who did the Vietnamese originally fight for their independence?  Why did the United States support this nation in Vietnam?
France, Ho Chi Minh was a communist, needed French support in Europe
List two ways combat conditions in Vietnam were unlike those soldiers had prepared for.
jungle, traps & guerrilla tactics, heat & rain, unknown enemy
What was “vietnamization”?
turning the war over to the South Vietnamese
What were the southern sympathizers of the communist North called?
Viet Cong
What impact did the Tet Offensive have on public opinion about the war?
turned many against it
What was the name of the quiet group that wanted law & order & supported the war? What President garnered their support?
silent majority, Nixon
What minority groups were over-represented in the troops in Vietnam?
Blacks and Hispanics
 What theory proposed that if South Vietnam fell to Communism, the rest of SE Asia would soon follow?
domino theory
What tactic did Nixon use to try and force the Vietnamese to the bargaining table?
increased bombing
Name two reasons Nixon went to China in 1972?
keep them at odds with USSR, open markets to trade
What did the SALT talks do?
limit strategic weapons, like ICBMs
What was one of Ford’s first important actions that relates to Watergate?
pardons Nixon
Why did OPEC place an embargo on oil to the U.S. in 1973?  What impact did this have?
we helped Israel in October war – gas prices in U.S. skyrocketed
Name two factors that led to the Rust Belt in the late 1970s.
overconfidence, lost touch, energy crisis, foreign competition, slacking off
What is stagflation a combination of?  Who’s presidency was most impacted by this?
High unemployment & inflation, Jimmy Carter
What was Carter’s major foreign policy victory in the Middle East?
Camp David Accords – Egypt & Israel agreed to work for peace
What was Carter’s big foreign policy nightmare? Why?
Iran Hostage Crisis, ineffective in dealing with Iranian militants
What major events had damaged American national esteem between 1969-1981?
Vietnam, Watergate, Iran Hostage Crisis
What president tried to restore prestige to the presidency in light of this?  How?
Ronald Reagan, defense build up, tough anti-Soviet stance, celebrating de-regulation of market
What were the primary tenets of Reaganomics?
Deregulation, anti-labor, Tax cuts for the upper classes - so that their investment would stimulate the economy and “trickle down” to the lower classes
What was our gov’t hoping for help with from the Iranians in exchange for selling them arms?
freeing our hostages in Lebanon
What happened to the Iranian Money?  What was congress’ position on this?
Went to aid the anti-Communist Contras in Nicaragua; Congress was against it
Identify two challenges George Bush faced during his presidency.
recession, end of Cold War, Gulf War, S & L Crisis, War on Drugs, Clarence Thomas
What promise came back to haunt George H.W. Bush in the 1992 election?  How?
Promised “No New Taxes,” Ross Perot ran as a third party candidate and stole much of his support
Identify two issues Bill Clinton attempted to deal with at the start of his first term.  Was he successful?
Healthcare, gays in the military; no
How did Republicans make Clinton pay for his slow start?
Big wins in the 1994 midterm elections, “Contract with America”
Despite facing both the Whitewater and Lewinsky scandals, why was President Clinton able to maintain high approval ratings?
The economy was growing steadily, we had a budget surplus, and most people did not see his scandals as a reflection of his ability to govern
What were three of George W. Bush’s priorities prior to 9/11?
Education reform, tax cuts for the upper classes, deregulation, support for faith based initiatives
How did 9/11 change the Bush agenda?
Immediate war in Afghanistan; new laws (Patriot Act) & agencies (Homeland Security & TSA)
What was the rationale behind the invasion of Iraq in March, 2003?
Iraq was seen as one of the primary state sponsors of terror, and the Bush administration was sure they were developing WMDs